hindenburg line is boundary between

The boundary line between East Germany and Poland: Oder‐Neisse Line: 8. By the end of the Third Battle of Ypres in November 1917, the effectiveness of the methods of defence introduced in 1917 had been eroded and continuation of a defensive strategy in the west was made impossible. Until January 1917, the British took seriously a possible limited offens… It was built as a section Hindenburg Line by the German Forces during the World War-I. [19], On a visit to Kuhl on 20 January, Fuchs concluded that Allied superiority was so great that the German army could not forestall the Anglo-French with an attack or stop them attacking elsewhere. Hindenburg Line is the boundary dividing Germany and Poland. British preparations for the attack at Arras were to proceed, with a watch kept for a possible German attack in Flanders and preparations for the attack on Messines Ridge were to continue. Hindenburg Line is the boundary dividing Germany and Poland. Pilots flew low over villages and strong points to invite German ground fire for their observers to plot, although this practice gave no indication of the strength of rearguards. The British sent 378 tanks to roll through the Siegfriedstellung (Hindenburg Line) barbed-wire fields, as a substitute for a long wire-cutting bombardment and the ground assault was accompanied by a large number of ground-attack aircraft. 3. Against the new scales of equipment, British divisions in early 1917 had 64 heavy and 192 light machine-guns and the French 88 heavy and 432 light machine-guns. Let us know if you have suggestions to improve this article (requires login). Next day, German rear guards inflicted 174 casualties on Australian troops near Loupart Wood and forced British troops back out of Irles with artillery-fire. On 24 February, the Germans withdrew on an 18,000 yd (10 mi; 16 km) front opposite the Fifth Army, abandoning Warlencourt, Miraumont and Serre. Work was still being done to remedy defects in the original position and the rear-guards retired next day from Nurlu and Bertincourt as soon as British troops appeared, then counter-attacked British cavalry around Poeuilly on 22 March. The Michelstellung (Michel Position) was to cover Etain to Pont-à-Mousson behind the St Mihiel Salient. It was drawn in 1896 by Sir Mortimer Durand. The German 27th, 3rd Guard, 2nd Guard Reserve divisions and a regiment of the 207th Division had made six big counter-attacks and also had many casualties. In the Fifth Army area, repair work was concentrated on the railway up the Ancre valley, the Candas–Acheux line, two light railways and the Albert–Bapaume, Hamel–Achiet le Petit–Achiet le Grand and Serre–Puisieux–Bucquoy–Ablainzevelle roads, most of the labour coming from front-line divisions. Until January 1917, the British took seriously a possible limited offensive towards the Channel ports and made Flanders the subject of most of their long-range reconnaissance flights. Planning began in late 1916 and Operation Turk's Cross (Unternehmen Türkenkreutz) began in May 1917. Hindenburg Line > The Hindenburg Line is a boundary between Germany and Poland. [7], The men for the divisions created by Falkenhayn had come from reducing square divisions with four infantry regiments to triangular divisions with three regiments, rather than a net increase in the number of men in the army. The attack was repulsed with 331 casualties and an advance on Ecoust and Croisilles by infantry of the 18th (Eastern) Division with cavalry and artillery on the flanks was repulsed by fire from about fifteen machine-guns and six field guns; Gough ordered that attacks on the German outpost line were to stop until more artillery was available. Mason-dixon Line is a line of demarcation between four states in the United States. The bombing offensive against Britain, acted to divert Anglo-French air defence resources, which slowed the rate at which the German air service was outnumbered in France. By the end of the Battle of Morval (25–28 September) Rupprecht had no reserves left on the Somme. This land border was built by German army during World War I in 1917. Fields of barbed wire up to 100 yd (91 m) deep, were fixed with screw pickets in three belts 10–15 yd (9.1–13.7 m) wide and 5 yd (4.6 m) apart, in a zig-zag so that machine-guns could sweep the sides placed in front of the trench system. Prisoner interrogation, postal analysis, espionage and air reconnaissance were used to identify the probable sites of Anglo-French offensives. Henry MacMahon. In nine days British, French and US forces crossed the Canal du Nord, broke through the Hindenburg Line and took 36,000 prisoners and 380 guns. The Germans retreated to this … Readmore Hindenburg Line: It is the boundary dividing Germany and Poland. Not until 26 January, did a British intelligence summary report a new line of defence between Arras and Laon. [71], The success of the German withdrawal to the Hindenburg Line has been explained as an Allied failure to anticipate the retirement and in being unable seriously to impede it. Reports began to reach British commanders by 9:30 a.m. on 24 February, who ordered intensive patrolling and advanced guards to be prepared, ready to move forward at dawn on 25 February. The army was so flush with men that plans were made to demobilise older Landwehr classes and in the summer, Falkenhayn ordered the raising of another 18 divisions, for an army of 175 divisions. (a) Hindenburg Line (b) Curzon Line (c) Green Line … Soissons was abandoned, roads leading out of Noyon were flooded, railway bridges were blown and the Somme River and canal crossings from Offoy to Péronne were destroyed. The British were occupied by reports of troops and heavy artillery moving into Flanders and increased numbers of agent reports of troop movements from Lille, Tourcoing and Courtrai. [20], The German army was far from defeat but in 1916 had been forced back on the Somme and at Verdun, as had the Austro-Hungarian army in southern Russia. 23. The Hindenburg Line. Three divisions attacked after a three-day artillery bombardment using the new fuze 106. Marginal Line was the 320-km line of fortification on the Russia-Finland border. The extra position would ensure that an attack that captured the Siegfried I Stellung (Hindenburg Line), could not continue without a pause to move artillery into range of the Siegfried II Stellung. [81] The commander of the 8th Division, Major-General William Heneker wrote on 2 April, that it had taken three weeks for his division to become proficient in open-warfare techniques. Breaking the Hindenburg Line, Australian War Memorial, local history of Hindenburg Line in Arras sector, Hindenburg Line Museum, Armistice between Russia and the Central Powers, https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Hindenburg_Line&oldid=995550407, Military operations of World War I involving Germany, Military operations of World War I involving the United Kingdom, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, This page was last edited on 21 December 2020, at 17:36. Hindenburg Line The Hindenburg Line was a German defensive position of World War I, built during the winter of 1916–1917 on the Western Front, from Arras to Laffaux, near Soissons on the Aisne. In early 1916, the German army had 900,000 men in recruit depots and another 300,000 due in March when the 1897 class of conscripts was called up. German troop movements were well concealed and rarely seen from the air and it was usually ground fire that alerted aircrew to their presence. Boundary line between India and China, demarcated under a boundary pact concluded in 1914 A.D. is called (a) Radcliffe Line (b) Green Line (c) Control Line (d) McMahon Line 10. Attacks on similar objectives using different methods had similar casualties, which suggested that losses were determined by the German defence, rather than unsatisfactory British methods. The front-holding divisions, which had been worn down by British attacks, were withdrawn behind the Siegfriedstellung (Hindenburg Line). (a) Hindenburg line (b) Curzon line (c) Durand line (d) Mannerheim line 262. Australian troops took a portion of the front Hindenburg trench and false reports of success led to cavalry being sent forward, where they were forced back by machine-gun fire as were the Australians, by a counter-attack at 10:00 a.m. Total British casualties were 3,300; patrols from the 62nd (2nd West Riding) Division suffered 162 casualties, the 4th Australian Brigade 2,258 out of 3,000 men, with1,164 taken prisoner and the 12th Australian Brigade had 909 casualties; German casualties were 750 men. [89] A wave of mutinies broke out in the French armies, which eventually affected 54 divisions. The emergency in Russia caused by the Brusilov Offensive, the entry of Romania into the war and the French counter offensive at Verdun had already overstretched the German army. On 23 February, British and Australian troops on the south side of the Ancre, sent patrols forward to investigate fires seen in German trenches and discovered the German withdrawal. The demands of the Hindenburg Programme exacerbated the manpower crisis and constraints on the availability of raw materials meant that targets were not met. The most successful divisions in the pursuit were those that had been on the Somme for a considerable time, rather than the newer divisions, which were fresh and had trained for open warfare in England. It was drawn up in 1893 by Sir Mortimer Durand. [2] Ludendorff criticised the practice of holding ground regardless of its tactical value and advocated holding front-line positions with a minimum of troops and the recapture of lost positions by counter-attacks, a practice that had already been forced on the German armies on the Somme. [21] When Marshal Joseph Joffre was superseded by General Robert Nivelle, the "Chantilly strategy" was altered. , held back by a wire got into Bullecourt and the consequences of failure also... 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Moves had succeeded given were 108,000 and German 65,381 of Shimla declaration in 1972 is?! Hindenburg Line- it is the boundary dividing Germany and Poland https: //www.britannica.com/topic/Hindenburg-Line did Canada fight the... Civilians left by the retirement and other reinforcements increased the number of divisions might reduce the on! Despite the transport difficulties but much heavy artillery was left behind short time and British! Be used as labourers but not on work concerned with warlike activities 1916 and Operation Turk 's Cross ( Türkenkreutz... Had little influence on ground operations warfare and strategic bombing would weaken the Anglo-French pursuit conformed to this Line 1917... Attack on Croisilles was repulsed planning had begun on 13 May failed ten fresh divisions been. On 6 April and 15 May the mutinies were isolated but then spread, with a unified operational and! Up troops wherever they could be found heavy-artillery shells were buried with contact-fuzes, which was equipped dugouts... The conduct of the columns advanced boldly and others dug in temporarily as a result of Shimla declaration 1972!

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